Environment - Climate Change

May 5, 2022 Published by Toronto and Area Chapter - By Jeremy Nixon

The EV Revolution is Here

From the Spring 2022 issue of CCI Toronto Condovoice Magazine, Volume 26, Issue Number 3

Electric Vehicles are no Longer a Niche – Rather They Have Become Part of the Mainstream

Humankind continually seeks improvement, never satisfied with the status quo. Often, improvement is borne out of need to solve problems of the day. While at other times, as an expression of natural interests and creativity. Regardless of the motivating factors, our species has a constant need to evolve.

Present day problems are many, one of which includes "greening" our world. While there are innumerable factors driving this change that are well documented elsewhere, the focus of this piece is on the evolution of the Electric Vehicle (EV). A revolution perhaps.

More specifically, we explore the impact on Condominiums in light of increasing conversations surrounding EVs as they strive to adapt to this evolution, and to the ever-changing needs and wants of their communities.

The Drive for Change
Regardless of varied positions on what is driving the shift towards electric vehicles, they are here to stay. Governments around the world are increasingly incentivizing them. Consumers are demanding them. Automakers old and new are continually developing and improving upon battery technology, with some planning to discontinue manufacturing internal combustion models in the not too distant future. Infrastructures are adapting to the changing service needs. Electric vehicles are no longer a niche rather having become part of the mainstream.

Condominium Community Challenges In Condominiums, the challenges are numerous but typically stem from how to best adapt their existing infrastructures in a fair, equitable, and cost-effective manner to the changing needs and wants of their communities. Increasingly, installation of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCs) is a hot topic. There is no one approach. One-size definitely does not fit all.

In some communities, a small group or even individual owners are seeking permission to install EVCs for their personal use, while at others the approach is to provide availability to all (whether or not there is current demand). The latter approach is somewhat of a "future proofing", and proactive one. While the former is more reactive, catering to individuals on an as-needed basis. There are of course innumerable iterations between these extremes. In all cases, early questions arise surrounding existing electrical capacity and whether it is sufficient to service EVCs. If not sufficient, what needs to be done to make it so.

Solutions are as varied as the Condominium Corporations themselves. In conventional "townhome" communities, individual unit owners can typically arrange EVC installations themselves within their unit boundaries, connected to their in-unit, sole servicing, electrical systems that do not have consequence on the community at large. While most Corporations may still have requirement for unit owner EVC installations to adhere to some sort of community standard, including advising, and receiving permission from, Boards of Directors (BODs); in our experience, such authorizations are typically formalities.

In multi-unit residential building (MURB) communities, the parameters can look significantly different as there is typically some sort of "shared" service that declarations commonly define as "service provided to more than one unit". In these scenarios, BODs and their Property Managers, will typically be required to consider the overall direction of their communities. Unfortunately, this can often take a frustratingly, albeit necessarily, lengthy process (at least from the perspective of unit owners who want it now).

The Conventional Approach
The conventional approach in MURBs is to determine the available capacity of the common electrical system to service EVCs. This typically involves having a suitably qualified professional evaluate the existing electrical system for available, excess electrical capacity. In turn, a related report will often advise that the building can support a certain number of EVCs.

While some communities may find that they have sufficient capacity to support a reasonably high percentage of EVCs relative to the number of units, far too often this number is not as large as everyone might like. In nearly all cases, buildings would not have available capacity to provide service to all units, should that eventually become a requirement.

BODs are then faced with deciding whether unit owners can install individually owned EVCs on a 'first come, first serve' basis, which invariably raises questions of fairness, equity, and cost effectiveness. Furthermore, early EVC installations typically require at least some minimal "upgrade" of infrastructure that later EVC installations can "piggy-back" off of, meaning that earlier installations bear higher costs than later ones. Again, more questions of cost fairness and equity to these earlier unit owners in particular, but also regarding who owns the infrastructure between the common electrical systems and unit owner EVCs.

Another approach involves "common element owned" EVCs, that are fully installed, expensed, and owned by the Condominium Corporations, with use available 'first come, first serve' (such as you might encounter in public parking lots) although without specific right of ownership to any individual unit. It is relatively simple nowadays for payment for electricity (and service 'rental') to be on-demand by credit card, smartphone, or other suitable method. While less individually convenient perhaps, as courtesy would suggest that vehicles be removed from EVCs once charged, this configuration is perceived as more equitable given they are theoretically available to all. In time however, as the number of EVs in a community increase, EVC demand may ultimately exceed availability.

Increasing overall electrical capacity would be a further potential solution. The expense and logistics of adding capacity in this fashion would require coordination with related electrical utilities, building authorities, and others having jurisdiction. If even possible, it is likely to be a less desirable approach. It is nonetheless an option that could be pursued.

The "Smart" Approach
Changing building needs have led to ingenuity. Companies have developed technologies to work within existing building electrical capacities while being able to provide service to a progressively larger group of EV owners. Increasingly, "smart" chargers are coming onto market. In general, these systems work by sharing available capacity amongst all EVs connected to the system at a given time. The chargers automatically adjust to provide more or less individual charging capacity, commonly as a proportion of total system capacity.

For completeness of discussion, some systems can also be configured in a priority capacity. One such priority scenario would be a new EV connecting to a system initially having available to them a larger than proportionate share of charging capacity; the idea being to get some quick range restoration while others that have been connected for longer would in theory already have a larger portion of their range restored. For the purpose of the remainder of this paper, our "smart" discussion remains based on proportional sharing.

Imagine an electrical system that has capability to provide "full" charging capacity to 20 EVs at once. Now imagine that 40 "smart" chargers are connected to that system. In simple terms, that means that if 20 EVs or less are connected at once, they will each charge to their full capacity, i.e. their fastest rate. As soon as the 21st EV connects, the smart chargers will automatically distribute charging capacity proportionally amongst the 21 EVs by dialing down each one slightly, in this instance to about 95% on each EV. 30 vehicles would be at about 67%. While a full 40 vehicles connected at once would each receive 50% charging capacity proportionally in this example.

This smart approach works equally well going the other way. As vehicles become charged, the electrical capacity they were using is given back to the system and each charger automatically dials up slightly based on the returned capacity, until once again there are 20 vehicles or less requiring charging at which time those remaining could again charge at their full rate.

In practical terms, this approach harnesses the idea that full and fastest charging is not needed at all times (or even most of the time), or necessarily all at once by all vehicles. Therefore, why would we need full, individual, on-demand charging at all times when such system would not be in use for the majority of its existence? Thinking further about when the majority of vehicles are not in use - such as for long, overnight periods - leads to further question as to what reason could possibly be needed for full capacity, fast, ondemand charging at all? When we start contextualizing ordinary, day-to-day use, and challenging conventional thinking, many more options come to light.

Smart chargers combine with any conventional approach, simply extending the service to a greater number of units. The possible configurations are virtually endless, and customizable to the needs of any community. This smart approach would also be suited to townhomes, should there not exist sufficient electrical panel capacity in a conventional approach.

The Even "Smarter" Approach Taking the "smart" approach a step further – by using smart chargers that communicate with individual suite electrical panels, available charging capacity at a given time is limited to the remaining capacity of the in-suite panels regardless of total system availability. In this way, unit owners are in full control of their EVC capacity without exceeding their equitable share of electricity, while the building overall remains within the existing electrical system capacity.

This methodology does not mean making direct connections between parking stalls and individual unit electrical panels. Rather, connections would be made to nearby garage common electrical rooms, with communication devices installed at individual EVCs and the unit electrical panels receiving the service to determine available electrical capacity at a given time. Individual owners are still using "their" electricity, just making use of the "common areas" infrastructure to deliver it to their charging station.

Technologies are emerging to take this kind of approach, and in doing so, almost every building is already "future proofed" in this way and available to everyone.

Other Considerations
Regardless of the approach taken, there would of course still be some leadership required from BODs, as well as related logistics, including potentially some nominal, new infrastructure installations. Overall cost, and philosophical considerations not discussed here also need to be taken into account.

In addition to obvious expert technical guidance that should be sought, some sort of EV policy should certainly be developed for every community, with corresponding legal advice, and by-laws passed as needed. In some older, bulk metered communities, there are additional administrative and equity challenges to be resolved (requiring further legal guidance, as it can easily be seen as unfair when an individual is able to use common element electricity to charge their private EV). Overall community desires should be considered, along with a long-term vision. There may be marketing considerations in relation to salability and/or rental of individual units, as well as any number of other community specific factors.

Whatever the current course of any community, the EV revolution is closer than you think.


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